Business history and race: A partial, open bibliography

[Instructions to contribute or export this list are available at the end of the bibliography]

A century of culture & commerce: remembering the Black experience around Little Rock, 1870-1970., 2003. Dept. of Arkansas Heritage, Little Rock, Ark.

African American Resources at Hagley, 2020. Hagley. URL (accessed 7.27.20).

Anderson, J.E., 2007. Conjure in African American society. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

Baptist, E.E., 2017. Toxic Debt, Liar Loans, Collateralized and Securitized Human Beings, and the Panic of 1873, in Capitalism Takes Command: The Social Transformation of Nineteenth-Century America. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Baradaran, M., 2017. The color of money: Black banks and the racial wealth gap. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Barnes, L.D., 2011. Industry and Its Laborers, Free and Slave in Late-Antebellum Virginia, in: Barnes, L.D., Schoen, B., Towers, F. (Eds.), The Old South’s Modern Worlds: Slavery, Region, and Nation in the Age of Progress. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Barnes, L.D., 2004. Fraternity and Masculine Identity: The Search For Respectability among White and Black Artisans in Petersburg, Virginia, in: Thompson Friend, C., Glover, L. (Eds.), Southern Manhood: Perspectives on Masculinity in the Old South. University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Bates, T., 1997. Utilization of minority employees in small business: a comparison of nonminority and black-owned urban enterprises, in: Stewart, J.B. (Ed.), African Americans and Post-Industrial Labor Markets. Transaction, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Bates, T., Henry, M., 2004. Minority business development programs: failure by design, in: Race, Poverty, and Domestic Policy. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conneticut.

Bayly, C.A., 2004. The birth of the modern world, 1780-1914 : global connections and comparisons, The Blackwell history of the world. Blackwell Publishing.

Beard, P.R., 2001. The Kansas Colored Literary and Business Academy: A White Effort at African American Education in Late Nineteenth Century Kansas. Kansas History 24, 200–217.

Beckert, S., Rockman, S., 2016. Slavery’s capitalism: a new history of American economic development. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

Bell, G.S., 2002. In the Black: a history of African Americans on Wall Street. Wiley, New York.

Black, D., Holtz-Eakin, D., Rosenthal, S.S., 2001. Racial Minorities, Economic Scale, and the Geography of Self-Employment. Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs 2001, 245–286. 

Bodenhorn, H., National Bureau of Economic Research, 2005. Colorism and African-American wealth: evidence from the nineteenth-century South / Ruebeck, Christopher S. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Bodenhorn, H., National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002. The complexion gap: the economic consequences of color among free African Americans in the rural antebellum South. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Bolster, W.J., 1997. Black jacks: African American seamen in the age of sail. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Bond, B.G., 2000. ‘The Extent of the Law’: Free Women of Color in Antebellum Memphis, Tennessee, in: Coryell, J.L. (Ed.), Negotiating Boundaries of Southern Womanhood: Dealing with the Powers That Be. University of Missouri Press, Columbia, Mo, pp. 7–26.

Borowiecki, K.J., Dahl, C.M., 2020. The land of artistic beauty and racial inequality: A study of the US since 1850. URL (accessed 7.22.20).

Borowiecki, K.J., Møller Dahl, C., 2020. What makes an artist? The evolution and clustering of creative activity in the US since 1850.

Boston, T.D., 1999. Affirmative action and black entrepreneurship. Routledge, London ; New York.

Boyd, R.L., 1997. Protected markets and African American professionals in northern cities during the great migration. Sociological Spectrum 17, 91–101.

Bray, W.J., 1997. Ebony entrepreneur: Captain Hansford C. Bayton. Steamboat bill. 54, 193–199.

Bristol, D., 2004. From Outposts to Enclaves: A Social History of Black Barbers from 1750 to 1915. Enterprise & Society 5, 594–606.

Buchanan, T.C., 2004. Black life on the Mississippi: slaves, free Blacks, and the western steamboat world. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Bundles, A.P., 2001. On her own ground: the life and times of Madam C.J. Walker. Scribner, New York.

Burrows, J.H., 1988. The necessity of myth: a history of the National Negro Business League, 1900-1945. Hickory Hill Press, Auburn, Alabama.

Bussel, R., 1998. “The Most Indispensable Man in His Community”; African-American Entrepreneurs in West Chester, Pennsylvania, 1865-1925. Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies 324–349.

Butler, J.S., 2005. Entrepreneurship and self-help among Black Americans: a reconsideration of race and economics. State University of New York Press, Albany.

Butler, J.S., 1997. Entrepreneurship and the advantages of the inner city: how to augment the Porter thesis, in: Boston, T.D., Ross, C.L. (Eds.), The Inner City: Urban Poverty and Economic Development in the next Century. Transaction, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

Cable, J.H., 2013. “The Roots of Organized Resistance: African-American Political Mobilization in Southwest Georgia, 1918-1945.” The Corinthian. URL (accessed 7.14.20).

Carstarphen, M.G., Guk Kim, T., 1998. Who’s the victim?: Intercultural perceptions between African American and Korean American business people in Dallas, in Kamalipour, Y., Carilli, T. (Eds.), Cultural Diversity and the U.S. Media. State University of New York Press, Albany, New York.

Cha-Jua, S.K., 2000. America’s First Black Town: Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830-1915. University of Illinois Press.

Chambers, J., 2008. Madison Avenue and the color line: African Americans in the advertising industry. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Chatelain, M., 2020. Franchise: the golden arches in Black America. W. W. Norton & Company, New York, NY.

Christy, R.D., 2000. Entrepreneurship-centered economic development: an analysis of African American entrepreneurship in the southern black belt / Dassie, Wylin. University of Kentucky, Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Lexington, Kentucky.

Connolly, N.D.B., 2014. A world more concrete: real estate and the remaking of Jim Crow South Florida. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago ; London.

Dailey, M.C., 2003. The Business Life of Emmett Jay Scott. The Business History Review 77, 667–686.

Demery, T.C., 2003. The Metoyers: Legacy of the Cane River People. North Louisiana History 34, 171–195.

Dingle, D.T., 1999. Black enterprise titans of the B.E. 100s: black CEOs who redefined and conquered American business. J. Wiley, New York.

Edmondson, V.C., Carroll, A.B., 1999. Giving Back: An Examination of the Philanthropic Motivations, Orientations and Activities of Large Black-Owned Businesses. Journal of Business Ethics 19, 171–179.

Eisenstadt, P., Friedman, W.A. (Eds.), 1999. The African American Gospel of Success, in: Black Conservatism: Essays in Intellectual and Political History. Edited by Peter Eisenstadt. Garland Publishing, New York.

Elwes, R.L., 2004. Leaving His Mark. American Legacy: Magazine of African-American History and Culture 10, 22–24, 27–28.

Ferleger, L.A., Lavallee, M., 2020. Lending a Hand: Black Business Owners’ Complex Role in the Civil Rights Movement. Enterprise & Society 21, 494–515.

Fitzgerald, M.W., n.d. The fruits of sagacity: race, business, and the radical ascendancy, in: Urban Emancipation: Popular Politics in Reconstruction Mobile, 1860–1890. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

Flamming, D., 2005. The business of race, in: Bound for Freedom: Black Los Angeles in Jim Crow America. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Fletcher, C.D., 2003. Black gold: a historical and locational appraisal of commercial banking in the United States by Blacks, 1770-2003. Afro. Facts Pub., [Place of publication not identified].

Forret, J., 2019. “How Deeply They Weed into the Pockets”: Slave Traders, Bank Speculators, and the Anatomy of a Chesapeake Wildcat, 1840–1843. Journal of the Early Republic 39, 709–736. 

Garrett-Scott, S., 2019a. ’A Commercial Emancipation’ for the Negro. Financial History 131, 20–23.

Garrett-Scott, S., 2019b. Banking on freedom: black women in U.S. finance before the New Deal. Columbia University Press, New York.

Garrett-Scott, S., 2016. To Do a Work that Would Be Very Far Reaching: Minnie Geddings Cox, the Mississippi Life Insurance Company, and the Challenges of Black Women’s Business Leadership in the Early Twentieth-Century United States. Enterprise & Society 17, 473–514.

Garrett-Scott, S., 2009. A Historiography of African American Business | The Business History Conference. URL (accessed 7.1.20).

Gibson, T.K. 1912-2005 (Truman K., 2005. Knocking down barriers: my fight for Black America / Huntley, Steve. Northwestern University Press, Evanston, Ill.

Gilbert, C., 2000. Homecoming: the story of African-American farmers / Eli, Quinn. Beacon Press, Boston.

Gill, T.M., 2010. Beauty shop politics: African American women’s activism in the beauty industry. University of Illinois Press, Urbana ; Chicago.

Gill, T.M., 2004. Civic Beauty: Beauty Culturists and the Politics of African American Female Entrepreneurship, 1900–1965. Enterprise & Society 5, 583–593. 

Gill, T.M., Scranton, P., 2001. 'I had my own business--so I didn’t have to worry’: Beauty salons, beauty culturists, and the politics of African-American female entrepreneurship, in: Beauty and Business: Commerce, Gender, and Culture in Modern America. Routledge, New York.

Glenn, B.J., 2001. Understanding mutual benefit societies, 1860-1960. Essay review. Journal Health Polit Policy Law 26, 638–651. 

Glotzer, P., 2020. How the suburbs were segregated: developers and the business of exclusionary housing, 1890-1960. Columbia University Press, New York.

Gould, V.M., 1998. Chained to the rock of adversity: to be free, Black & female in the Old South. University of Georgia Press, Athens.

Greer, B.W., 2013. Selling Liberia: Moss H. Kendrix, the Liberian Centennial Commission, and the Post-World War II Trade in Black Progress. Enterprise & Society 14, 303–326. 

Gregory, S.T., 1999. A legacy of dreams: the life and contributions of Dr. William Venoid Banks. University Press of America, Lanham, Md.

Grim, V., 1998. African American Landlords in the Rural South, 1870-1950: A Profile. Agricultural History 72, 399–416.

Harris, A.L., 1968. The Negro as capitalist; a study of banking and business among American Negroes. McGrath Pub. Co.

Harris, L., 2016. Sex workers, psychics, and numbers runners: Black women in New York City’s underground economy. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Hayner, D., 2019. Binga: the rise and fall of Chicago’s first Black banker. Northwestern University Press, Evanston, Illinois.

Henderson, A.B., 1993. Richard R. Wright and the National Negro Bankers Association: Early Organizing Efforts among Black Bankers, 1924-1942. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 117, 51–81.

Henderson, A.B., 1987. Heman E. Perry and Black Enterprise in Atlanta, 1908-1925. The Business History Review 61, 216–242. 

Hickmott, A.F., 2016. Black Land, Black Capital: Rural Development in the Shadows of the Sunbelt South, 1969–1976. The Journal of African American History 101, 504–534.

Holt, S.A., 2003. Making freedom pay: North Carolina freedpeople working for themselves, 1865-1900. University of Georgia Press ; Eurospan, Athens, Ga.; London.

Horan, C. 2021. Insurance Era: Risk, Governance, and the Privatization of Security in Postwar America. University of Chicago Press.

Horton, H.D., 2004. Black entrepreneurs, 1970-1990: a demographic perspective, in: Butler, J.S., Kozmetsky, G. (Eds.), Immigrant and Minority Entrepreneurship: The Continuous Rebirth of American Communities. Praeger, Westport, Connecticut.

Horton, J.O., Horton, L.E., 1979. Black Bostonians: family life and community struggle in the antebellum North. Holmes & Meier Publishers, Inc., New York; London.

Horton, L., Horton, J.O., 1997. Power and Social Responsibility: Entrepreneurs and the Black Community in Antebellum Boston, in: Wright, C.E., Viens, K.P. (Eds.), Entrepreneurs: The Boston Business Community, 1700-1850. Massachusetts Historical Society : Distributed by Northeastern University Press, Boston.

House-Soremekun, B., 2002a. Confronting all odds: African American entrepreneurship in Cleveland. Kent State University Press, Kent, Ohio.

House-Soremekun, B., 2002b. The Impact of Economic Culture on the Business Success of African American Entrepreneurs, in: Jalloh, A., Falola, T. (Eds.), Black Business and Economic Power, Rochester Studies in African History and the Diaspora. University of Rochester Press, Rochester, N.Y.

Hudson, L.E., 1997. To have and to hold: slave work and family life in antebellum South Carolina. University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

Hudson, L.M., 2008. The making of “Mammy Pleasant”: a Black entrepreneur in nineteenth-century San Francisco. Univ. of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois.

Hudson, P.J., 2017. Bankers and Empire: how Wall Street colonized the Caribbean. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago ; London.

Hunt, M.K., Hunt, J.E., 1998. History of black business: the coming of America’s largest black-owned businesses. Knowledge Express Co, Chicago, Illinois.

Hyman, L., 2011. Ending Discrimination, Legitimating Debt: The Political Economy of Race, Gender, and Credit Access in the 1960s and 1970s. Enterprise & Society 12, 200–232. 

Ingham, J.N., 2003. Building Businesses, Creating Communities: Residential Segregation and the Growth of African American Business in Southern Cities, 1880–1915. Bus. Hist. Rev. 77, 639–665. 

Ingham, J.N., 2002. Patterns of African American Female Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship in Ten Southern Cities, 1880-1930, in: Jalloh, A., Falola, T. (Eds.), Black Business and Economic Power, Rochester Studies in African History and the Diaspora. University of Rochester Press, Rochester, N.Y.

Ingham, J.N., 1994. African-American business leaders: a biographical dictionary / Feldman, Lynne B. Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn.

Inman, K., 2017. Women’s resources in business start-up: a study of black and white women entrepreneurs. Routledge, London.

Jackson, D.H.Jr., 2000. CHARLES BANKS: ‘WIZARD OF MOUND BAYOU’. Journal of Mississippi History 4, 268–292.

Jasen, D.A., Jones, G., 1998. Spreadin’ rhythm around: Black popular songwriters, 1880-1930. Schirmer Books ; Prentice Hall International, New York ; London.

Jenkins, C., Hines, E.G., 2004. Black Titan: A.G. Gaston and the making of a Black American millionaire. One World, New York.

Jewell, J.O., 2007. Race, social reform, and the making of a middle class: the American Missionary Association and Black Atlanta, 1870-1900. Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, Md.

Johnson, J.H., 1989. Succeeding against the odds. Johnson Publishing Co, Chicago, Illinois.

Joyce, D.F., 1983. Gatekeepers of black culture: black-owned book publishing in the United States, 1817-1981. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Katz, W.J., 2000. Robert S. Duncanson: City and Hinterland. Prospects 25, 311–337. 

Kenzer, R.C., 1997. Enterprising southerners: Black economic success in North Carolina, 1865-1915. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Kijakazi, K., 1997. African-American economic development and small business ownership. Garland Pub, New York.

Kilbourne, R.H., 2006. Slave agriculture and financial markets in antebellum America: the Bank of the United States in Mississippi, 1831-1852. Pickering & Chatto, London.

Kofsky, F., 1998. Black music, white business: illuminating the history and political economy of jazz, 1st ed. ed. Pathfinder, New York.

Kotlowski, D., 1998. Black Power—Nixon Style: The Nixon Administration and Minority Business Enterprise. Business History Review 72, 409–445.

Kranz, R., 2004. African-American business leaders and entrepreneurs. Facts On File, Inc, New York, NY.

Kunjufu, J., 2014. Black economics: solutions for economic and community empowerment.

LaRocco, C., 2002. A Dark Day on Black Wall Street. Financial History 76.

Lee, J., 2002. The significance of small business and the nature of the niche, in Civility in the City: Blacks, Jews, and Koreans in Urban America. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Mass.

Levenstein, M., 2004. African American entrepreneurship: The view from the 1910 census, in Butler, J.S., Kozmetsky, G. (Eds.), Immigrant and Minority Entrepreneurship: The Continuous Rebirth of American Communities. Praeger, Westport, CT.

Levy, J., 2012. Freaks of fortune: the emerging world of capitalism and risk in America. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Levy, J.A., 2020. Black Power in the Boardroom: Corporate America, the Sullivan Principles, and the Anti-Apartheid Struggle. Enterprise & Society 21, 170–209. 

Lomax, M.E., 2003. Black baseball entrepreneurs, 1860-1901: operating by any means necessary, 1st ed. ed. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, N.Y.

Lomax, M.E., 1998. Black Entrepreneurship in the National Pastime: The Rise of Semiprofessional Baseball in Black Chicago, 1890-1915. Journal of Sport History 25, 43–64.

Lowry, B., 2003. Her dream of dreams: the rise and triumph of Madam C.J. Walker. Alfred A. Knopf, New York.

Manring, M.M., 1998. Slave in a box: the strange career of Aunt Jemima, The American South series. Univ. Press of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va.

Marlowe, G.W., 2003. A right worthy grand mission: Maggie Lena Walker and the quest for Black economic empowerment. Howard University Press, Washington, DC.

Martin, L.L., Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, 1998. African Americans in business: the path towards empowerment : essays on black entrepreneurship from the African background to the present : 73rd national celebration of Afro-American history. Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, Washington, D.C.

Martin, L.L., Walker, J.K., 1998. African Americans in business: the path towards empowerment : essays on black entrepreneurship from the African background to the present : Associated Publishers, Washington, D.C.

Mathewson, A.D., 1998. Major League Baseball’s Monopoly Power and the Negro Leagues. American Business Law Journal 35, 291–318. 

Mcandrew, M., 2010. A Twentieth-Century Triangle Trade: Selling Black Beauty at Home and Abroad, 1945—1965. Enterprise & Society 11, 786–812.

Moore, J.M., 1999. Leading the race: the transformation of the Black elite in the nation’s capital, 1880-1920. University Press of Virginia, Charlottesville.

Morgan, E.J., 2006. The World Is Watching: Polaroid and South Africa. Enterprise & Society 7, 520–549.

Morris, G.D., 2018. Go to Durham, You Need the Inspiration: How Black Wall Street Flourished in a  Piedmont Railroad and Tobacco Town. Financial History 128, 24–27.

Morris, G.D., 2016. From the Dustbowl to the Federal Reserve: 50 Years Ago, Andrew Brimmer Broke  the Color Barrier at the Fed. Financial History 118, 24–26.

Morris, G.D., 2005. Native Talent: Most Indian Business Are Just a Generation Old, But Among Many  First Nations a Tradition of Commerce is Centuries Old. Financial History 84, 20–24.

Murphy, S.A., 2005. Securing Human Property: Slavery, Life Insurance, and Industrialization in the Upper South. Journal of the Early Republic 25, 615–652.

Nelson, S., n.d. Boss: The Black Experience in Business | The Untold Story of African American Entrepreneurship | PBS. Boss: The Black Experience in Business.

Nembhard, J.G., 2014. Collective Courage: A History of African American Cooperative Economic Thought and Practice. Penn State Press.

Nolfi, G., 2020. The Banker.

Osofsky, G., 2003. The Afro-American Realty Company, in: Boyd, H., Dodson, H. (Eds.), The Harlem Reader: A Celebration of New York’s Most Famous Neighborhood, from the Renaissance Years to the Twenty-First Century. Three Rivers Press, New York.

Overmyer, J., 1998. Queen of the Negro leagues: Effa Manley and the Newark Eagles. Scarecrow Press, Lanham, Md.

Pardo, R.I., 2018a. Bankrupted Slaves. Vanderbilt Law Review 71, 1071–1166.

Pardo, R.I., 2018b. Documenting Bankrupted Slaves. Vanderbilt Law Review 71, 73–116.

Pardo, R.I., 2019. Federally Funded Slaving. Tulane Law Review 93, 787–857.

Pardo, R.I., 2020. Financial Freedom Suits: Bankruptcy, Race, and Citizenship in Antebellum America. Arizona Law Review 62, 125–82.

Parker, T., 2019. Department stores and the black freedom movement: workers, consumers, and civil rights from the 1930s to the 1980s. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Penningroth, D.C., 2003. The claims of kinfolk: African American property and community in the nineteenth-century South. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Phipps, S.T.A., Prieto, L.C., 2020. Leaning in: A Historical Perspective on Influencing Women’s Leadership. Journal of Business Ethics.

Phipps, S.T.A., Prieto, L.C., 2018. The business of black beauty: social entrepreneurship or social injustice? Journal of Management History 24, 37–56.

Pilgrim, D.M., 2018. Masters of a Craft: Philadelphia’s Black Public Waiters, 1820–50. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 142, 269–293.

Piper, W.B., 2016. “To Develop Our Business”: Addison Scurlock, Photography, and the National Negro Business League, 1900–1920. The Journal of African American History 101, 436–468. 

Plater, M.A., 1996. African American entrepreneurship in Richmond, 1890-1940: the story of R.C. Scott. Garland Pub, New York.

Prieto, L., Phipps, S., Mathur-Helm, B., 2018. From slaves to servant leaders: remembering the contributions of John Merrick and Alonzo Herndon. Society and Business Review 13. 

Prieto, L.C., 2019. African American management history: insights on gaining a cooperative advantage / Phipps, Simone T. A., ; author. Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley.

Prieto, L.C., Phipps, S.T.A., 2016. Re-discovering Charles Clinton Spaulding’s “The Administration of Big Business”: Insight into early 20th century African-American management thought. Journal of Management History 22, 73–90.

Prieto, L.C., Phipps, S.T.A., Osiri, J.K., LeCounte, J.F., 2017. Creating an interface: Aiding entrepreneurial success via critical pedagogy and insights from African-American management history. Journal of Management History 23, 489–506. 

Pulley, B., 2004. The billion dollar BET: Robert Johnson and the inside story of Black Entertainment Television. John Wiley, Hoboken, N.J.

Ransom, R.L., Sutch, R., 2001. One kind of freedom: the economic consequences of emancipation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge [England] ; New York.

Rauch, J.E., 2001. Black ties only?: Ethnic business networks, intermediaries, and African American retail entrepreneurship, in: Rauch, J.E., Casella, A. (Eds.), Networks and Markets. Russell Sage Foundation, New York.

Restuccia, B.S., 2001. An extraordinary man: Homer B. Roberts 1885-1952. Rustic Enterprise, Ann Arbor, MI. (1825 Geddes ave. Ann Arbor, MI. 48104).

Reynolds, B.J., United States, Rural Business/Cooperative Service, 2002. Black farmers in America, 1865-2000: the pursuit of independent farming and the role of cooperatives. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Rural Business-Cooperative Service, Washington, D.C.

Rogers, M.S., 2000. African-American business: late 19th century Wilmington, NC. Author, Wilmington, N.C.

Rose, T., 2004. The business of rap: An interview with Carmen Ashhurst-Watson, in: Forman, M., Neal, M.A. (Eds.), That’s the Joint! The Hip-Hop Studies Reader. Routledge, New York.

Rosenthal, C., 2018. Accounting for slavery: masters and management. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Rothstein, R., 2017. The color of law: a forgotten history of how our government segregated America. Liveright Publishing Corporation, a division of W.W. Norton & Company, New York ; London.

Rusco, E., 2004. Thomas Detter: Nevada Black Writer and Advocate for Human Rights. Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 47, 193–213.

Santamarina, X., 2005a. “Enterprising Women and the Labors of Femininity: Eliza Potter, Cincinnati Hairdresser” and “Behind the Scenes of Black Labor: Elizabeth Keckley and the Scandal of Publicity", in: Belabored Professions: Narratives of African American Working Womanhood. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Santamarina, X., 2005b. Black Hairdresser and Social Critic: Eliza Potter and the Labors of Femininity. American Literature 77, 151–177. 

Satter, B., 2009. Family properties: race, real estate, and the exploitation of Black urban America. Metropolitan Books, New York.

Schafer, D.L., 2003. Anna Madgigine Jai Kingsley: African princess, Florida slave, plantation slaveowner. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

Schermerhorn, C., 2015. The business of slavery and the rise of American capitalism, 1815-1860. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Schweninger, L., 2002. Doctor Jack: A Slave Physician on the Tennessee Frontier, in: West, C.V. (Ed.), Trial and Triumph: Essays in Tennessee’s African American History. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Scott, M.R., 2016. These Ladies Do Business with A Capital B: The Griffin Sisters as Black Businesswomen in Early Vaudeville. The Journal of African American History 101, 469–503. 

Scribner, C.M., 2002. Nashville offers opportunity: The Nashville Globe and business as a means of uplift, 1907-1913, in: West, C.V. (Ed.), Trial and Triumph: Essays in Tennessee’s African American History. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville.

Silverman, R.M., 2000. Doing business in minority markets: black and Korean entrepreneurs in Chicago’s ethnic beauty aids industry. Garland Pub, New York.

Silverman, R.M., 1998. The Effects of Racism and Racial Discrimination on Minority Business Development: The Case of Black Manufacturers in Chicago’s Ethnic Beauty Aids Industry. Journal of Social History 31, 571–597.

Singleton, J., 1997. Rosewood. Warner Bros.,  Peters Entertainment,  New Deal Productions.

Sitton, T., Conrad, J.H., 2005. Freedom colonies: independent Black Texans in the time of Jim Crow. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Slevin, K.F., 1998. From stumbling blocks to stepping stones: the life experiences of fifty professional African American women. New York Univ. Press, New York.

Slocum, K., 2019. Black towns, black futures: the enduring allure of a black place in the American West. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Sluby, P.C., 2004. Appendix 2: Roster of African American Patentees: Utility Grants from 1821, in The Inventive Spirit of African Americans: Patented Ingenuity. Praeger, Westport, CT.

Smith, C.A., 2005. Market women: black women entrepreneurs--past, present, and future. Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.

Snider, J.D., 2020. Lucean Arthur Headen: the making of a black inventor and entrepreneur. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Sokolow, M., 1998. “New Guinea at One End, and a View of the Alms-House at the Other”: The Decline of Black Salem, 1850-1920. The New England Quarterly 71, 204–228. 

Spring, Anita, 2002. Gender and the Range of Entrepreneurial Strategies: The ‘Typical’ and the ‘New’ Women Entrepreneurs, in: Jalloh, A., Falola, T. (Eds.), Black Business and Economic Power. University of Rochester Press, Rochester, N.Y.

Stevens, M.E., 2002. After Slavery: The Milwaukee Years of Louis Hughes. Wisconsin Magazine of History 86, 40–51.

Stuart, M.S. 1878-(Merah S., 1969. An economic detour; a history of insurance in the lives of American Negroes,. College Park, Md., McGrath Pub. Co.

Swann-Wright, D., 2005. Mindin’ our own business: African American business enterprise in Central Virginia, 1820-1970. Legacy Project, Inc., Lynchburg, VA.

Taylor, K.-Y., 2019. Race for profit: how banks and the real estate industry undermined black homeownership. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Tienda, M., Raijman, R., 2001. Discussion: ethnic ties and entrepreneurship: comment on “Black ties only?: Ethnic business networks, intermediaries, and African American retail entrepreneurship, in: Rauch, J.E., Casella, A. (Eds.), Networks and Markets. Russell Sage Foundation.

Toplin, R.B., 1974. Slavery and race relations in Latin America. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Trimiew, D.M., Greene, M., 1997. How We Got Over: The Moral Teachings of The African–American Church on Business Ethics. Bus Ethics Q 7, 133–147.

Vacha, J.E., 2000. The Best Barber in America: George A. Myers. Timeline 17, 2–15.

Vandal, G., 1997. Black Utopia in Early Reconstruction New Orleans: The People’s Bakery as a Case-Study. Louisiana History: The Journal of the Louisiana Historical Association 38, 437–452.

Varma, R., 2006. On common ground?: feminist theory and critical race studies, in: Rooney, E. (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Feminist Literary Theory. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 232–260.

Venkatesh, S.A., 1998. Gender and Outlaw Capitalism: A Historical Account of the Black Sisters United “Girl Gang.” Signs 23, 683–709.

Verney, K., 2001. The art of the possible: Booker T. Washington and Black leadership in the United States, 1881-1925. Routledge, New York.

Vollmers, G., 2003. Industrial slavery in the United States: the North Carolina turpentine industry 1849–61. Accounting, Business & Financial History 13, 369–392.

Walker, J.E.K., 2000. Free Black Women Enterprises and Entrepreneurship: The Intersection of Business, Race, Sex, Color and Gender in the Antebellum South, in: Terborg-Penn, R., Sumler-Edmond, J. (Eds.), Black Women’s History at the Intersection of Knowledge and Power: ABWH’s Twentieth Anniversary Anthology. Tapestry Press, Acton, MA.

Walker, J.E.K. (Ed.), 1999. Encyclopedia of African American business history. Greenwood Press, Westport, Conn.

Walker, J.E.K., 1998. The history of Black business in America: capitalism, race, entrepreneurship. Macmillan Library Reference USA, New York.

Walker, J.E.K., 1997. Promoting Black Entrepreneurship and Business Enterprise in Antebellum America: The National Negro Convention, 1830-1880, in Boston, T.D. (Ed.), A Different Vision: Race and Public Policy. Routledge, New York.

Weare, W.B., 1973. Black business in the New South: a social history of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Weems, R.E., 2020. The merchant prince of Black Chicago: Anthony Overton and the building of a financial empire. University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Weems, R.E., 2002. Where Did All Our Customers Go?”: Historic Black-Owned Businesses and the African American Consumer Market, in: Jalloh, A., Falola, T. (Eds.), Black Business and Economic Power. University of Rochester Press, Rochester, NY.

Weems, R.E., 1998. Desegregating the dollar: African American consumerism in the twentieth century. New York University Press, New York.

Weems, R.E., Randolph, L.A., 2009. Business in black and white : American presidents & Black entrepreneurs in the twentieth century. New York University Press.

Weems, R.E., Randolph, L.A., 2005. “The Right Man”: James A. Jackson and the Origins of U.S. Government Interest in Black Business. Enterprise & Society 6, 254–277.

Weisman, B.R., 2000. The Plantation System of the Florida Seminole Indians and Black Seminoles during the Colonial Era, in: Landers, J.G. (Ed.), Colonial Plantations and Economy in Florida. Univ. Press of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.

White, S., 2015. Prince of Darkness: the untold story of Jeremiah G. Hamilton, Wall Street’s first black millionaire. St. Martin’s Press, New York.

Wilder, C.S., 2002. The Guardian Angel of Africa’: A Financial History of the New York African Society for Mutual Relief, 1808-1945. Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 26, 67–94.

Wilder, C.S., 1998. The Rise and Influence of the New York African Society for Mutual Relief, 1808-1865. Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 22, 7–18.

Williams, C., 1998. Prosperity in the Face of Prejudice: The Life of a Free Black Woman in Frontier St. Louis. Gateway Heritage 19, 4–11.

Williams, C.B., 2002. Historical archives: the last century of the millennium : the South Carolina Morticians Association, Inc., formerly known as the Colored Funeral Directors and Embalmers Association (1926-1960). Benedict College Communications Center, Columbia, S.C.

Williams, M., 2007. Banished: How Whites Drove Blacks Out of Town in America. Center for Investigative Reporting,  ITVS,  Two Tone Productions.

Willson, J., Winch, J., 2000. The elite of our people: Joseph Willson’s sketches of black upper-class life in antebellum Philadelphia. Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park (Pa.).

Wilson, S., Cohassey, J., 1998. Toast of the town: the life and times of Sunnie Wilson. Wayne State University Press, Detroit.

Winch, J., 2003. A gentleman of color: the life of James Forten. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Winch, J., 2001. “A Person of Good Character and Considerable Property”: James Forten and the Issue of Race in Philadelphia’s Antebellum Business Community. Business History Review 75, 261–296. 

Winch, J., 1997. “You Know I Am a Man of Business”: James Forten and the Factor of Race in Philadelphia’s Antebellum Business Community. Business and Economic History 26, 213–228.

Winch, J., 1988. Philadelphia’s black elite: activism, accommodation, and the struggle for autonomy. Temple University Press, Philadelphia.

Winford, B.K., 2020. John Hervey Wheeler, Black Banking, and the Economic Struggle for Civil Rights. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington.

Woodard, M.D., 1998. Black entrepreneurs in America: stories of struggle and success. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick, N.J.

Wright, G., 2013. Sharing the prize: the economics of the civil rights revolution in the American South. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Wright, G., 2006. Slavery and American economic development. Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge.

Wright, R.E., 2017. Economic Growth and Slavery, Then and Now. Financial History 122, 11–14.

Wright, R.E., 2015. The Sixth Dakota: Entrepreneurship, Property and Challenge in South Dakota. Financial History 131, 12–15.

Yoon, I.-J., 1997. Korean-Black relations in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York City, in: On My Own: Korean Businesses and Race Relations in America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Zajonc, T., 2002. Black Enterprise and the Legacy of Slavery. The Review of Black Political Economy 30, 23–37. 

Zipf, K., 2017. Money in the Bank: African American Women, Finance, and Freedom in New Bern, North Carolina, 1868-1874, in: Tise, L.E., Crow, J.J. (Eds.), New Voyages to Carolina. University of North Carolina Press, pp. 166–193.

The BHC wishes to expand the list of references already curated and invites your contributions to the bibliography. Submit your suggestions by (a) emailing additional references to BHC Web Editor Paula de la Cruz-Fernández <padelacruzf at>, (b) tweeting titles to @TheBHCNews or (c) adding it to the Zotero Group Bibliography Business history and race: a partial, open bibliography (send your Zotero username to Paula de la Cruz-Fernández <padelacruzf at> to become a member of the Group)

Edited by

Paula de la Cr…
Published 2020-07-03