POSTWAR AMERICANIZATION OF THE FRENCH RETAIL TRADE. Bernardo Trujillo and NCR's seminars on Modern Merchants Methods, 1957-1966.

Tristan Jacques

Hypermarkets, invented in France in 1963, were part and parcel of the drastic

transformations of retail trade structures. This article examines the process of

Americanization behind those changes, and more specifically the role of the Modern

Marketing Methods seminars, organized by the National Cash Register and led by

Bernardo Trujillo between 1957 and the end of the 1960s. These courses were offered to

retail professionals in the United-States and touted, among other things, the advantages

of consumer self-service; despite being US-based, these seminars had a strong impact on

French business. However, as these seminars are not well known by historians, this

article seeks to document their functioning and to examine their influence, in particular

by comparing them to the productivity missions of the 1950s.