Postwar Americanization of the French Retail Trade: Bernardo Trujillo and NCR's Seminars on Modern Merchants Methods, 1957-1966.

Tristan Jacques

Hypermarkets, invented in France in 1963, were part and parcel of the drastic transformations of retail trade structures. This article examines the process of Americanization behind those changes, and more specifically the role of the Modern Marketing Methods seminars, organized by the National Cash Register and led by Bernardo Trujillo between 1957 and the end of the 1960s. These courses were offered to retail professionals in the United-States and touted, among other things, the advantages of consumer self-service; despite being US-based, these seminars had a strong impact on French business. However, as these seminars are not well known by historians, this article seeks to document their functioning and to examine their influence, in particular by comparing them to the productivity missions of the 1950s.