The creation and transfer of entrepreneurship in emerging economies of the world. An approach through large family-owned corporations of China, Mexico and Brazil

This article analyses the process of creation and transfer of entrepreneurial competitive advantages in large family firms of three dynamic emerging economies of the 21st century: Brazil, Mexico and China. It does so by studing path dependencies and the creation of dynamic capabilities in three case studies: Pao de Açúcar (Brazil), Grupo Carso (Mexico) and Hutchison Whampoa (China). The interdisciplinary perspective of the article enables a long-term analysis of entrepreneurship, and facilitates the study of one important topic of debate in family business studies: the generational transfer of the so-called entrepreneurial spirit. The results of the article show on the one hand that existing historically determined institutions ruling local and global markets, and also inherited practices and values, have highly conditioned the strategies used to create and transfer entrepreneurship between generations in some of the largest family firms in Brazil, China and Mexico.