Abstract: The Mixed Economy and the Concentration of the Coal Companies in the European Coal and Steel Community between 1952 and 1967
The central paradigm of John Maynard Keynes' economic theory is that only state intervention can reinstate economic demand and reduce the unemployment rate to a socially acceptable level. After World War II, depending on the extent of government participation, Keynes's theory led to three variants of the so-called mixed economy: neo-collective, neo-liberal, and central consultation. In each of the postwar (Western) European countries, one of these variants predominated. When the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded, all six founding countries, except Luxembourg, produced coal. In this essay, I discuss which of the three variants of government participation dominated the coal-producing companies in these five countries (West Germany, France, Italy, Belgium, and the Netherlands), and how this influenced the concentration of these companies during the period from 1952 to 1967.