Abstract: Developing Organizational Capabilities through Foreign Aid and Foreign Direct Investment: The Emergence of Engineering Consulting in Spain, 1953-1975

Adoración Álvaro-Mora


This paper analyzes the contribution of foreign aid and foreign direct investment to the development of organizational capabilities in late industrializing countries. It does so by studying the formation of a knowledge-based activity—engineering consulting—in Spain, a relatively backward country. Founded on U.S. technology and know-how, this activity grew