Abstract: The Disjointed Hand: The Coordination Failure of Modern Firms in Japan
Using Chandler's (1977, 1990) definition of modern firms, we examine the nature of firms in Japan. We argue that national differences affected decisions about which twentieth-century firms were considered modern. In the twenty-first century, such differences should diminish. We examine contemporary Japanese firms in four areas: corporate governance; employment practices; supply chain management; and entrepreneurship, for supporting evidence, and find widespread coordination failure.