Abstract: Municipal Expansion and the Emergence of the Anti-Socialist Critique in Britain, 1880-1903
Fears that municipal enterprise, under the rubric of municipal socialism, would undermine the mid-Victorian commitment to free enterprise and individualism were central to early twentieth-century concern over the growth of the state in Britain. Municipal socialism, the provision of various services and utilities by local government, had emerged among Britain's industrial cities in the mid- to late nineteenth century as a collectivist response to the dilemmas of urbanization. Generally supervised by democratically elected town councils, municipal enterprises were rarely controversial when established in the absence of private enterprise. However, when seeking to supersede or pre-empt private endeavor, they drew the attention of intellectuals, politicians, and economists who argued that they violated sound tenets of finance, economy, and administration. Opponents who organized against municipal socialism at the turn of the twentieth century sought to revivify the political and economic arguments of nineteenth-century liberalism they believed were overlooked as local political bodies embraced collectivism. Marginalized during the heyday of municipal socialism, opponents nonetheless provided the foundation for arguments that attacked the growth of collective endeavor at the national level in the years just before World War I.