Abstract: Monopolizing the Metropolis: The All-Night Poker Players and the Business of City-Building

Domenic Vitiello


Between the 1870s and 1910s, a group of capitalists and politicians led by William Whitney in New York, Peter Widener in Philadelphia, and Charles Yerkes in Chicago consolidated the transit, gas, and electric utilities of about 100 American cities. In the process, they transformed the enterprise and political economy of urbanization and early suburbanization.